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General studies on radiofrequency radiation & electrosensitivity

General studies on radiofrequency radiation & electrosensitivity

1. electromagnetic hypersensitivity – an increasing challenge for the medical profession

Hedendahl L, Carlberg M, Hardell L.

Published in: Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):209-15. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0012.

The authors reviewed the literature on various aspects of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) and possible adverse health effects of RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) and related case reports. Most people are not aware of this type of exposure (pollution), which has no smell, color or visibility. There is also growing concern that wireless use of laptops and iPads in Swedish schools, some of which are even now doing away with textbooks, will exacerbate exposure to EMFs.


1. electromagnetic hypersensitivity – an increasing challenge for the medical profession

2. calls/appeals, significant or not, for a moratorium on fifth generation, 5G, microwave radiation deployment.

Hardell L, Nyberg R. Mol Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar;12(3):247-257. doi: 10.3892/mco.2020.1984. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

This article summarizes the warnings about the health risks associated with RF contained in the 5G Appeal and in letters to the EU Health Commissioner since September 2017, as well as the authors’ counterarguments. The responses also indicate that the EU seems to have put industry profits ahead of people’s health and the environment so far.


3. high-frequency ambient radiation in the city of Stockholm, Sweden.

Carlberg M, Hedendahl L, Koppel T, Hardell L. Oncol Lett. 2019 Feb;17(2):1777-1783. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.9789. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The authors took measurements of high-frequency radiation in the center of Stockholm, Sweden, in March and April 2017.


4. comments on the U.S. National Toxicology Program technical reports on toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in rats exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 900 MHz and in mice exposed to whole-body radiofrequency radiation at 1,900 MHz.

Hardell L, Carlberg M. Int J Oncol. 2019 Jan;54(1):111-127. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4606. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

The main objective of this study was to compare previous epidemiological studies in humans with the results of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), including a brief review of animal studies. The authors conclude that there is clear evidence that RF radiation is carcinogenic (cancer-causing) and causes gliomas (brain tumors of the central nervous system) and acoustic neuromas (benign tumors). There is also some evidence of an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer and clear evidence that RF radiation is a multisite carcinogen (a carcinogen causing multiple forms of cancer). Therefore, based on the preamble of the IARC monographs (single representations), RF radiation should be classified as carcinogenic to humans, Group 1.


5. radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: a case report.

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hedendahl LK. Oncol Lett. 2018 May;15(5):7871-7883. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8285. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

In the present study, RF radiation levels were measured in an apartment near two groups of rooftop cellular base stations. Due to the current high levels of RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term residence, especially for children who may be more sensitive than adults.


6. measurements of RF radiation with a body-worn exposimeter in Swedish schools equipped with WiFi.

Hedendahl LK, Carlberg M, Koppel T, Hardell L. Frontline Public Health. 2017 Nov 20;5:279. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00279. eCollection 2017.

This study conducted exposimetric (determining the level of radiation exposure) measurements in seven schools to assess RF emissions in the classroom. For this purpose, the RF exposure of the teachers was measured to approximate (approach the actual exposure value) the exposure of the children.


7. World Health Organization, RF radiation and health – a tough nut to crack (report).

Hardell L. Int J Oncol. 2017 Aug;51(2):405-413. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2017.4046. Epub 2017 Jun 21 Review.

In 2014, WHO released a draft monograph on RF fields and health for public comment. It turned out that five of the six core group members responsible for the draft are members of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an industry-loyal NGO. Thus, they face a serious conflict of interest. As with ICNIRP, the monograph’s assessment of non-thermal biological effects of RF radiation is rejected as scientific evidence of adverse health effects. This has generated many comments to WHO. However, at a meeting on March 3, 2017, at the WHO office in Geneva, it was noted that WHO has no intention of reshuffling the core group.


8. high-frequency radiation in Stockholm’s Old Town: an exposimeter study covering the Royal Castle, the Supreme Court, three large squares, and the Swedish Parliament.

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Koppel T, Hedendahl L. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017 Apr;6(4):462-476. doi: 10.3892/mco.2017.1180. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

In April 2016, outdoor RF radiation levels were measured during five tours of Stockholm’s Old Town.


9. assessment of cell phone and cordless phone use and glioma risk using the 1965 Bradford Hill Viewpoints on association or causation.

Carlberg M, Hardell L. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9218486. doi: 10.1155/2017/9218486. Epub 2017 Mar 16 Review.

Bradford Hill’s 1965 viewpoints on association or causation have been applied to glioma risk and mobile or cordless phone use. All nine viewpoints were thereby evaluated on the basis of epidemiology and laboratory studies.


10. where is your phone located? A survey regarding where women aged 15 to 40 carry or keep their smartphones and associated risk perceptions: a survey and pilot study.

Redmayne M. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 6;12(1):e0167996. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167996. eCollection 2017.

This survey used an online questionnaire to ask about smartphone storage in a variety of circumstances. In the context of a study on women’s health, this was to calculate the immediate radiation exposure on or near the body. In addition, the women were also asked about their perception of risk.


11. radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Station in Sweden and some medical aspects of public exposure to RF fields.

Hardell L, Koppel T, Carlberg M, Ahonen M, Hedendahl L. Int J Oncol. 2016 Oct;49(4):1315-1324. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3657. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Stockholm Central Station in Sweden was investigated for exposure of the population to RF radiation.


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